Factory Contract

Uniswap is designed in a way that assumes many discrete Pool contracts, with each pool handling swaps of one token pair. This looks problematic when we want to swap between two tokens that don’t have a pool–if there’s no pool, no swaps are possible. However, we can still do intermediate swaps: first swap to a token that has pairs with either of the tokens and then swap this token to the target token. This can also go deeper and have more intermediate tokens. However, doing this manually is cumbersome, and, luckily, we can make the process easier by implementing it in our smart contracts.

The Factory contract is a contract that serves multiple purposes:

  1. It acts as a centralized registry of Pool contracts. Using a factory, you can find all deployed pools, their tokens, and addresses.
  2. It simplifies the deployment of Pool contracts. EVM allows deployment of smart contracts from smart contracts–Factory uses this feature to make pool deployment a breeze.
  3. It makes pool addresses predictable and allows to compute them without making calls to the registry. This makes pools easily discoverable.

Let’s build the Factory contract! But before doing this, we need to learn something new.

The CREATE and CREATE2 Opcodes

EVM has two ways of deploying contracts: via CREATE or via CREATE2 opcode. The only difference between them is how new contract address is generated:

  1. CREATE uses the deployer’s account nonce to generate a contract address (in pseudocode):
    KECCAK256(deployer.address, deployer.nonce)
    nonce is an account-specific counter of transactions. Using nonce in new contract address generation makes it hard to compute an address in other contracts or off-chain apps, mainly because, to find the nonce a contract was deployed at, one needs to scan historical account transactions.
  2. CREATE2 uses a custom salt to generate a contract address. This is just an arbitrary sequence of bytes chosen by a developer, which is used to make address generation deterministic (and reduces the chance of a collision).
    KECCAK256(deployer.address, salt, contractCodeHash)

We need to know the difference because Factory uses CREATE2 when deploying Pool contracts so pools get unique and deterministic addresses that can be computed in other contracts and off-chain apps. Specifically, for salt, Factory computes a hash using these pool parameters:

keccak256(abi.encodePacked(token0, token1, tickSpacing))

token0 and token1 are the addresses of pool tokens, and tickSpacing is something we’re going to learn about next.

Tick Spacing

Recall the loop in the swap function:

while (
    state.amountSpecifiedRemaining > 0 &&
    state.sqrtPriceX96 != sqrtPriceLimitX96
) {
    (step.nextTick, ) = tickBitmap.nextInitializedTickWithinOneWord(...);
    (state.sqrtPriceX96, step.amountIn, step.amountOut) = SwapMath.computeSwapStep(...);

This loop finds initialized ticks that have some liquidity by iterating them in either of the directions. This iterating, however, is an expensive operation: if a tick is far away, the code would need to pass all the ticks between the current and the target one, which consumes gas. To make this loop more gas-efficient, Uniswap pools have the tickSpacing setting, which sets, as the name suggests, the distance between ticks: the wider the distance, the more gas-efficient swaps are.

However, the wider the tick spacing the lower the precision. Low volatility pairs (e.g. stablecoin pairs) need higher precision because price movements are narrow in such pairs. Medium and high volatility pairs need lower precision since price movements are wide in such pairs. To handle this diversity, Uniswap allows to pick a tick spacing when a pair is deployed. Uniswap allows deployers to choose from these options: 10, 60, or 200. And we’ll have only 10 and 60 for simplicity.

In technical terms, tick indexes can only be multiples of tickSpacing: if tickSpacing is 10, only multiples of 10 will be valid as tick indexes (10, 20, 5000, 5010, but not 8, 12, 5001, etc.). However, and this is important, this doesn’t apply to the current price–it can still be any tick because we want it to be as precise as possible. tickSpacing is only applied to price ranges.

Thus, each pool is uniquely identified by this set of parameters:

  1. token0,
  2. token1,
  3. tickSpacing;

And, yes, there can be pools with the same tokens but different tick spacings.

The Factory contract uses this set of parameters as a unique identifier of a pool and passes it as a salt to generate a new pool contract address.

From now on, we’ll assume the tick spacing of 60 for all our pools, and we’ll use 10 for stablecoin pairs. Please notice that only ticks divisible by these values can be flagged as initialized in the ticks bitmap. For example, only ticks -120, -60, 0, 60, 120, etc. can be initialized and used in liquidity ranges when tick spacing is 60.

Factory Implementation

In the constructor of Factory, we need to initialize supported tick spacings:

// src/UniswapV3Factory.sol
contract UniswapV3Factory is IUniswapV3PoolDeployer {
    mapping(uint24 => bool) public tickSpacings;
    constructor() {
        tickSpacings[10] = true;
        tickSpacings[60] = true;


We could’ve made them constants, but we’ll need to have it as a mapping for a later milestone (tick spacings will have different swap fee amounts).

The Factory contract is a contract with only one function createPool. The function begins with the necessary checks we need to make before creating a pool:

// src/UniswapV3Factory.sol
contract UniswapV3Factory is IUniswapV3PoolDeployer {
    PoolParameters public parameters;
    mapping(address => mapping(address => mapping(uint24 => address)))
        public pools;


    function createPool(
        address tokenX,
        address tokenY,
        uint24 tickSpacing
    ) public returns (address pool) {
        if (tokenX == tokenY) revert TokensMustBeDifferent();
        if (!tickSpacings[tickSpacing]) revert UnsupportedTickSpacing();

        (tokenX, tokenY) = tokenX < tokenY
            ? (tokenX, tokenY)
            : (tokenY, tokenX);

        if (tokenX == address(0)) revert TokenXCannotBeZero();
        if (pools[tokenX][tokenY][tickSpacing] != address(0))
            revert PoolAlreadyExists();

Notice that this is the first time when we’re sorting tokens:

(tokenX, tokenY) = tokenX < tokenY
    ? (tokenX, tokenY)
    : (tokenY, tokenX);

From now on, we’ll also expect pool token addresses to be sorted, i.e. token0 goes before token1 when sorted. We’ll enforce this to make salt (and pool addresses) computation consistent.

This change also affects how we deploy tokens in tests and the deployment script: we need to ensure that WETH is always token0 to make price calculations simpler in Solidity (otherwise, we’d need to use fractional prices, like 1/5000). If WETH is not token0 in your tests, change the order of token deployments.

After that, we prepare pool parameters and deploy a pool:

parameters = PoolParameters({
    factory: address(this),
    token0: tokenX,
    token1: tokenY,
    tickSpacing: tickSpacing

pool = address(
    new UniswapV3Pool{
        salt: keccak256(abi.encodePacked(tokenX, tokenY, tickSpacing))

delete parameters;

This piece looks weird because parameters is not used. Uniswap uses Inversion of Control to pass parameters to a pool during deployment. Let’s look at the updated Pool contract constructor:

// src/UniswapV3Pool.sol
contract UniswapV3Pool is IUniswapV3Pool {
    constructor() {
        (factory, token0, token1, tickSpacing) = IUniswapV3PoolDeployer(

Aha! Pool expects its deployer to implement the IUniswapV3PoolDeployer interface (which only defines the parameters() getter) and calls it in the constructor during deployment to get the parameters. This is what the flow looks like:

  1. Factory: defines parameters state variable (implements IUniswapV3PoolDeployer) and sets it before deploying a pool.
  2. Factory: deploys a pool.
  3. Pool: in the constructor, calls the parameters() function on its deployer and expects that pool parameters are returned.
  4. Factory: calls delete parameters; to clean up the slot of the parameters state variable and to reduce gas consumption. This is a temporary state variable that has a value only during a call to createPool().

After a pool is created, we keep it in the pools mapping (so it can be found by its tokens) and emit an event:

    pools[tokenX][tokenY][tickSpacing] = pool;
    pools[tokenY][tokenX][tickSpacing] = pool;

    emit PoolCreated(tokenX, tokenY, tickSpacing, pool);

Pool Initialization

As you have noticed from the code above, we no longer set sqrtPriceX96 and tick in Pool’s constructor–this is now done in a separate function, initialize, that needs to be called after the pool is deployed:

// src/UniswapV3Pool.sol
function initialize(uint160 sqrtPriceX96) public {
    if (slot0.sqrtPriceX96 != 0) revert AlreadyInitialized();

    int24 tick = TickMath.getTickAtSqrtRatio(sqrtPriceX96);

    slot0 = Slot0({sqrtPriceX96: sqrtPriceX96, tick: tick});

So this is how we deploy pools now:

UniswapV3Factory factory = new UniswapV3Factory();
UniswapV3Pool pool = UniswapV3Pool(factory.createPool(token0, token1, tickSpacing));

The PoolAddress Library

Let’s now implement a library that will help us calculate pool contract addresses from other contracts. This library will have only one function, computeAddress:

// src/lib/PoolAddress.sol
library PoolAddress {
    function computeAddress(
        address factory,
        address token0,
        address token1,
        uint24 tickSpacing
    ) internal pure returns (address pool) {
        require(token0 < token1);

The function needs to know pool parameters (they’re used to build a salt) and the Factory contract address. It expects the tokens to be sorted, which we discussed above.

Now, the core of the function:

pool = address(
                        abi.encodePacked(token0, token1, tickSpacing)

This is what CREATE2 does under the hood to calculate the new contract address. Let’s unwind it:

  1. first, we calculate salt (abi.encodePacked(token0, token1, tickSpacing)) and hash it;
  2. then, we obtain the Pool contract code (type(UniswapV3Pool).creationCode) and also hash it;
  3. then, we build a sequence of bytes that includes: 0xff, the Factory contract address, hashed salt, and hashed Pool contract code;
  4. we then hash the sequence and convert it to an address.

These steps implement contract address generation as it’s defined in EIP-1014, which is the EIP that added the CREATE2 opcode. Let’s look closer at the values that constitute the hashed byte sequence:

  1. 0xff, as defined in the EIP, is used to distinguish addresses generated by CREATE and CREATE2;
  2. factory is the address of the deployer, in our case the Factory contract;
  3. salt was discussed earlier–it uniquely identifies a pool;
  4. hashed contract code is needed to protect from collisions: different contracts can have the same salt, but their code hash will be different.

So, according to this scheme, a contract address is a hash of the values that uniquely identify this contract, including its deployer, code, and unique parameters. We can use this function from anywhere to find a pool address without making any external calls and without querying the factory.

Simplified Interfaces of Manager and Quoter

In Manager and Quoter contracts, we no longer need to ask users for pool addresses! This makes interaction with the contracts easier because users don’t need to know pool addresses, they only need to know tokens. However, users also need to specify tick spacing because it’s included in the pool’s salt.

Moreover, we no longer need to ask users for the zeroForOne flag because we can now always figure it out thanks to tokens sorting. zeroForOne is true when “from token” is less than “to token”, since the pool’s token0 is always less than token1. Likewise, zeroForOne is always false when “from token” is greater than “to token”.

Addresses are hashes, and hashes are numbers, so we can say “less than” or “greater than” when comparing addresses.