Providing Liquidity

Enough of theory, let’s start coding!

Create a new folder (mine is called uniswapv3-code), and run forge init --vscode in it–this will initialize a Forge project. The --vscode flag tells Forge to configure the Solidity extension for Forge projects.

Next, remove the default contract and its test:

  • script/Contract.s.sol
  • src/Contract.sol
  • test/Contract.t.sol

And that’s it! Let’s create our first contract!

Pool Contract

As you’ve learned from the introduction, Uniswap deploys multiple Pool contracts, each of which is an exchange market of a pair of tokens. Uniswap groups all its contracts into two categories:

  • core contracts,
  • and periphery contracts.

Core contracts are, as the name implies, contracts that implement core logic. These are minimal, user-unfriendly, low-level contracts. Their purpose is to do one thing and do it as reliably and securely as possible. In Uniswap V3, there are 2 such contracts:

  1. Pool contract, which implements the core logic of a decentralized exchange.
  2. Factory contract, which serves as a registry of Pool contracts and a contract that makes deployment of pools easier.

We’ll begin with the pool contract, which implements 99% of the core functionality of Uniswap.

Create src/UniswapV3Pool.sol:

pragma solidity ^0.8.14;

contract UniswapV3Pool {}

Let’s think about what data the contract will store:

  1. Since every pool contract is an exchange market of two tokens, we need to track the two token addresses. These addresses will be static, set once and forever during pool deployment (thus, they will be immutable).
  2. Each pool contract is a set of liquidity positions. We’ll store them in a mapping, where keys are unique position identifiers and values are structs holding information about positions.
  3. Each pool contract will also need to maintain a ticks registry–this will be a mapping with keys being tick indexes and values being structs storing information about ticks.
  4. Since the tick range is limited, we need to store the limits in the contract, as constants.
  5. Recall that pool contracts store the amount of liquidity, . So we’ll need to have a variable for it.
  6. Finally, we need to track the current price and the related tick. We’ll store them in one storage slot to optimize gas consumption: these variables will be often read and written together, so it makes sense to benefit from the state variables packing feature of Solidity.

All in all, this is what we begin with:

// src/lib/Tick.sol
library Tick {
    struct Info {
        bool initialized;
        uint128 liquidity;

// src/lib/Position.sol
library Position {
    struct Info {
        uint128 liquidity;

// src/UniswapV3Pool.sol
contract UniswapV3Pool {
    using Tick for mapping(int24 => Tick.Info);
    using Position for mapping(bytes32 => Position.Info);
    using Position for Position.Info;

    int24 internal constant MIN_TICK = -887272;
    int24 internal constant MAX_TICK = -MIN_TICK;

    // Pool tokens, immutable
    address public immutable token0;
    address public immutable token1;

    // Packing variables that are read together
    struct Slot0 {
        // Current sqrt(P)
        uint160 sqrtPriceX96;
        // Current tick
        int24 tick;
    Slot0 public slot0;

    // Amount of liquidity, L.
    uint128 public liquidity;

    // Ticks info
    mapping(int24 => Tick.Info) public ticks;
    // Positions info
    mapping(bytes32 => Position.Info) public positions;


Uniswap V3 uses many helper contracts and Tick and Position are two of them. using A for B is a feature of Solidity that lets you extend type B with functions from library contract A. This simplifies managing complex data structures.

For brevity, I’ll omit a detailed explanation of Solidity syntax and features. Solidity has great documentation, don’t hesitate to refer to it if something is not clear!

We’ll then initialize some of the variables in the constructor:

        address token0_,
        address token1_,
        uint160 sqrtPriceX96,
        int24 tick
    ) {
        token0 = token0_;
        token1 = token1_;

        slot0 = Slot0({sqrtPriceX96: sqrtPriceX96, tick: tick});

Here, we’re setting the token address immutables and setting the current price and tick–we don’t need to provide liquidity for the latter.

This is our starting point, and our goal in this chapter is to make our first swap using pre-calculated and hard-coded values.


The process of providing liquidity in Uniswap V2 is called minting. The reason is that the V2 pool contract mints tokens (LP-tokens) in exchange for liquidity. V3 doesn’t do that, but it still uses the same name for the function. Let’s use it as well:

function mint(
    address owner,
    int24 lowerTick,
    int24 upperTick,
    uint128 amount
) external returns (uint256 amount0, uint256 amount1) {

Our mint function will take:

  1. Owner’s address, to track the owner of the liquidity.
  2. Upper and lower ticks, to set the bounds of a price range.
  3. The amount of liquidity we want to provide.

Notice that user specifies , not actual token amounts. This is not very convenient of course, but recall that the Pool contract is a core contract–it’s not intended to be user-friendly because it should implement only the core logic. In a later chapter, we’ll make a helper contract that will convert token amounts to before calling

Let’s outline a quick plan of how minting will work:

  1. a user specifies a price range and an amount of liquidity;
  2. the contract updates the ticks and positions mappings;
  3. the contract calculates token amounts the user must send (we’ll pre-calculate and hard code them);
  4. the contract takes tokens from the user and verifies that the correct amounts were set.

Let’s begin with checking the ticks:

if (
    lowerTick >= upperTick ||
    lowerTick < MIN_TICK ||
    upperTick > MAX_TICK
) revert InvalidTickRange();

And ensuring that some amount of liquidity is provided:

if (amount == 0) revert ZeroLiquidity();

Then, add a tick and a position:

ticks.update(lowerTick, amount);
ticks.update(upperTick, amount);

Position.Info storage position = positions.get(

The ticks.update function is:

// src/lib/Tick.sol
function update(
    mapping(int24 => Tick.Info) storage self,
    int24 tick,
    uint128 liquidityDelta
) internal {
    Tick.Info storage tickInfo = self[tick];
    uint128 liquidityBefore = tickInfo.liquidity;
    uint128 liquidityAfter = liquidityBefore + liquidityDelta;

    if (liquidityBefore == 0) {
        tickInfo.initialized = true;

    tickInfo.liquidity = liquidityAfter;

It initializes a tick if it has 0 liquidity and adds new liquidity to it. As you can see, we’re calling this function on both lower and upper ticks, thus liquidity is added to both of them.

The position.update function is:

// src/libs/Position.sol
function update(Info storage self, uint128 liquidityDelta) internal {
    uint128 liquidityBefore = self.liquidity;
    uint128 liquidityAfter = liquidityBefore + liquidityDelta;

    self.liquidity = liquidityAfter;

Similar to the tick update function, it adds liquidity to a specific position. To get a position we call:

// src/libs/Position.sol
function get(
    mapping(bytes32 => Info) storage self,
    address owner,
    int24 lowerTick,
    int24 upperTick
) internal view returns (Position.Info storage position) {
    position = self[
        keccak256(abi.encodePacked(owner, lowerTick, upperTick))

Each position is uniquely identified by three keys: owner address, lower tick index, and upper tick index. We hash the three to make storing data cheaper: when hashed, every key will take 32 bytes, instead of 96 bytes when owner, lowerTick, and upperTick are separate keys.

If we use three keys, we need three mappings. Each key would be stored separately and would take 32 bytes since Solidity stores values in 32-byte slots (when packing is not applied).

Next, continuing with minting, we need to calculate the amounts that the user must deposit. Luckily, we have already figured out the formulas and calculated the exact amounts in the previous part. So, we’re going to hard-code them:

amount0 = 0.998976618347425280 ether;
amount1 = 5000 ether;

We’ll replace these with actual calculations in a later chapter.

We will also update the liquidity of the pool, based on the amount being added.

liquidity += uint128(amount);

Now, we’re ready to take tokens from the user. This is done via a callback:

function mint(...) ... {

    uint256 balance0Before;
    uint256 balance1Before;
    if (amount0 > 0) balance0Before = balance0();
    if (amount1 > 0) balance1Before = balance1();
    if (amount0 > 0 && balance0Before + amount0 > balance0())
        revert InsufficientInputAmount();
    if (amount1 > 0 && balance1Before + amount1 > balance1())
        revert InsufficientInputAmount();


function balance0() internal returns (uint256 balance) {
    balance = IERC20(token0).balanceOf(address(this));

function balance1() internal returns (uint256 balance) {
    balance = IERC20(token1).balanceOf(address(this));

First, we record current token balances. Then we call the uniswapV3MintCallback method on the caller–this is the callback. It’s expected that the caller (whoever calls mint) is a contract because non-contract addresses cannot implement functions in Ethereum. Using a callback here, while not being user-friendly at all, lets the contract calculate token amounts using its current state–this is critical because we cannot trust users.

The caller is expected to implement uniswapV3MintCallback and transfer tokens to the Pool contract in this function. After calling the callback function, we continue with checking whether the Pool contract balances have changed or not: we require them to increase by at least amount0 and amount1 respectively–this would mean the caller has transferred tokens to the pool.

Finally, we’re firing a Mint event:

emit Mint(msg.sender, owner, lowerTick, upperTick, amount, amount0, amount1);

Events is how contract data is indexed in Ethereum for later search. It’s a good practice to fire an event whenever the contract’s state is changed to let blockchain explorer know when this happened. Events also carry useful information. In our case, it’s the caller’s address, the liquidity position owner’s address, upper and lower ticks, new liquidity, and token amounts. This information will be stored as a log, and anyone else will be able to collect all contract events and reproduce the activity of the contract without traversing and analyzing all blocks and transactions.

And we’re done! Phew! Now, let’s test minting.


At this point, we don’t know if everything works correctly. Before deploying our contract anywhere we’re going to write a bunch of tests to ensure the contract works correctly. Luckily for us, Forge is a great testing framework and it’ll make testing a breeze.

Create a new test file:

// test/UniswapV3Pool.t.sol
// SPDX-License-Identifier: UNLICENSED
pragma solidity ^0.8.14;

import "forge-std/Test.sol";

contract UniswapV3PoolTest is Test {
    function setUp() public {}

    function testExample() public {

Let’s run it:

$ forge test
Running 1 test for test/UniswapV3Pool.t.sol:UniswapV3PoolTest
[PASS] testExample() (gas: 279)
Test result: ok. 1 passed; 0 failed; finished in 5.07ms

It passes! Of course, it is! So far, our test only checks that true is true!

Test contracts are just contracts that inherit from forge-std/Test.sol. This contract is a set of testing utilities, we’ll get acquainted with them step by step. If you don’t want to wait, open lib/forge-std/src/Test.sol and skim through it.

Test contracts follow a specific convention:

  1. setUp function is used to set up test cases. In each test case, we want to have a configured environment, like deployed contracts, minted tokens, and initialized pools–we’ll do all this in setUp.
  2. Every test case starts with the test prefix, e.g. testMint(). This will let Forge distinguish test cases from helper functions (we can also have any function we want).

Let’s now actually test minting.

Test Tokens

To test minting we need tokens. This is not a problem because we can deploy any contract in tests! Moreover, Forge can install open-source contracts as dependencies. Specifically, we need an ERC20 contract with minting functionality. We’ll use the ERC20 contract from Solmate, a collection of gas-optimized contracts, and make an ERC20 contract that inherits from the Solmate contract and exposes minting (it’s public by default).

Let’s install solmate:

$ forge install rari-capital/solmate

Then, let’s create the ERC20Mintable.sol contract in the test folder (we’ll use the contract only in tests):

// SPDX-License-Identifier: UNLICENSED
pragma solidity ^0.8.14;

import "solmate/tokens/ERC20.sol";

contract ERC20Mintable is ERC20 {
        string memory _name,
        string memory _symbol,
        uint8 _decimals
    ) ERC20(_name, _symbol, _decimals) {}

    function mint(address to, uint256 amount) public {
        _mint(to, amount);

Our ERC20Mintable inherits all functionality from solmate/tokens/ERC20.sol and we additionally implement the public mint method which will allow us to mint any number of tokens.


Now, we’re ready to test minting.

First, let’s deploy all the required contracts:

// test/UniswapV3Pool.t.sol
import "./ERC20Mintable.sol";
import "../src/UniswapV3Pool.sol";

contract UniswapV3PoolTest is Test {
    ERC20Mintable token0;
    ERC20Mintable token1;
    UniswapV3Pool pool;

    function setUp() public {
        token0 = new ERC20Mintable("Ether", "ETH", 18);
        token1 = new ERC20Mintable("USDC", "USDC", 18);


In the setUp function, we deploy tokens but not pools! This is because all our test cases will use the same tokens but each of them will have a unique pool.

To make the setting up of pools cleaner and simpler, we’ll do this in a separate function, setupTestCase, that takes a set of test case parameters. In our first test case, we’ll test successful liquidity minting. This is what the test case parameters look like:

function testMintSuccess() public {
    TestCaseParams memory params = TestCaseParams({
        wethBalance: 1 ether,
        usdcBalance: 5000 ether,
        currentTick: 85176,
        lowerTick: 84222,
        upperTick: 86129,
        liquidity: 1517882343751509868544,
        currentSqrtP: 5602277097478614198912276234240,
        shouldTransferInCallback: true,
        mintLiqudity: true
  1. We’re planning to deposit 1 ETH and 5000 USDC into the pool.
  2. We want the current tick to be 85176, and the lower and upper ticks to be 84222 and 86129 respectively (we calculated these values in the previous chapter).
  3. We’re specifying the precalculated liquidity and current .
  4. We also want to deposit liquidity (mintLiquidity parameter) and transfer tokens when requested by the pool contract (shouldTransferInCallback). We don’t want to do this in each test case, so we want to have the flags.

Next, we’re calling setupTestCase with the above parameters:

function setupTestCase(TestCaseParams memory params)
    returns (uint256 poolBalance0, uint256 poolBalance1)
{, params.wethBalance);, params.usdcBalance);

    pool = new UniswapV3Pool(

    if (params.mintLiqudity) {
        (poolBalance0, poolBalance1) =

    shouldTransferInCallback = params.shouldTransferInCallback;

In this function, we’re minting tokens and deploying a pool. Also, when the mintLiquidity flag is set, we mint liquidity in the pool. In the end, we’re setting the shouldTransferInCallback flag for it to be read in the mint callback:

function uniswapV3MintCallback(uint256 amount0, uint256 amount1) public {
    if (shouldTransferInCallback) {
        token0.transfer(msg.sender, amount0);
        token1.transfer(msg.sender, amount1);

It’s the test contract that will provide liquidity and will call the mint function on the pool, there’re no users. The test contract will act as a user, thus it can implement the mint callback function.

Setting up test cases like that is not mandatory, you can do it however feels most comfortable to you. Test contracts are just contracts.

In testMintSuccess, we want to ensure that the pool contract:

  1. takes the correct amounts of tokens from us;
  2. creates a position with correct key and liquidity;
  3. initializes the upper and lower ticks we’ve specified;
  4. has correct and .

Let’s do this.

Minting happens in setupTestCase, so we don’t need to do this again. The function also returns the amounts we have provided, so let’s check them:

(uint256 poolBalance0, uint256 poolBalance1) = setupTestCase(params);

uint256 expectedAmount0 = 0.998976618347425280 ether;
uint256 expectedAmount1 = 5000 ether;
    "incorrect token0 deposited amount"
    "incorrect token1 deposited amount"

We expect specific pre-calculated amounts. And we can also check that these amounts were transferred to the pool:

assertEq(token0.balanceOf(address(pool)), expectedAmount0);
assertEq(token1.balanceOf(address(pool)), expectedAmount1);

Next, we need to check the position the pool created for us. Remember that the key in positions mapping is a hash? We need to calculate it manually and then get our position from the contract:

bytes32 positionKey = keccak256(
    abi.encodePacked(address(this), params.lowerTick, params.upperTick)
uint128 posLiquidity = pool.positions(positionKey);
assertEq(posLiquidity, params.liquidity);

Since Position.Info is a struct, it gets destructured when fetched: each field gets assigned to a separate variable.

Next, come the ticks. Again, it’s straightforward:

(bool tickInitialized, uint128 tickLiquidity) = pool.ticks(
assertEq(tickLiquidity, params.liquidity);

(tickInitialized, tickLiquidity) = pool.ticks(params.upperTick);
assertEq(tickLiquidity, params.liquidity);

And finally, and :

(uint160 sqrtPriceX96, int24 tick) = pool.slot0();
    "invalid current sqrtP"
assertEq(tick, 85176, "invalid current tick");
    "invalid current liquidity"

As you can see, writing tests in Solidity is not hard!


Of course, testing only successful scenarios is not enough. We also need to test failing cases. What can go wrong when providing liquidity? Here are a couple of hints:

  1. Upper and lower ticks are too big or too small.
  2. Zero liquidity is provided.
  3. The liquidity provider doesn’t have enough tokens.

I’ll leave it to you to implement these scenarios! Feel free to peek at the code in the repo.